Beans grow best in full sun and well-drained, fertile soil so seedling emergence is not inhibited. Planting Beans should be planted after all danger of frost has passed and the soil has warmed. Poor germination and rot are likely if the soil temperature is below
Plant all types of bean seed (except cowpea, yardlong, and lima) 1 inch deep in heavy, compacted soils or 1 1/2 inches deep in light, sandy soils. Cowpea, yardlong, and lima beans should be planted 1/2 inch deep in heavy soils and 1 inch deep in light soils. Plant seeds of wax, soy, cowpea, horticultural, dry, and bush snap beans 2-4 inches apart in rows 2-3 feet apart.
Do not plant until danger of frost has passed and soil has warmed. Germination is poor when soil temperature is below 60 F. Cold air temperatures (even above freezing) can injure plants and reduce yields.
Adequate moisture is especially important from flower bud formation to pod set. Too much or too little water, or excessive heat, causes blossom and pod drop. Provide bean plants with 1 inch of water per week. Extremes in soil moisture can also lead to malformed pods in which only the first few seeds develop, leaving the rest of the bean pod shriveled. Water early in the morning to allow plants to dry quickly and reduce opportunity for disease infection
Because beans are shallowly rooted, use a shallow, shaving stroke with the hoe to remove weed tops. To avoid spreading diseases, do not cultivate after a rain or early in the morning when foliage is wet from dew. Applying mulch will prevent many weeds as well as help retain soil moisture. Use organic mulches such as weathered straw, untreated lawn clippings, or shredded bark. Apply mulch 2-3 inches deep after soil has warmed.
Construct trellis, teepee, or single-pole support before seeding to avoid injuring plant roots later. Bamboo poles or saplings lashed together make easy, inexpensive supports. Do not locate trellis where it will shade other plants that need full sun.
Harvest when the pods are firm, crisp and fully elongated, but before the seed within the pod has developed significantly. Pick beans after the dew is off the plants, and they are thoroughly dry.
Days to Maturity: 50 to 60 days for snap beans; 85 to 110 days for pole limas; 65 to 75 days for bush limas; 60 to 110 days for pole beans.
Bacterial blights – Avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so aboveground plant parts will dry as quickly as possible. Avoid crowding plants. Space apart to allow air circulation. Eliminate weeds around plants and garden area to improve air circulation. Do not save your own seed.
Bean common mosaic virus (BV-1 and NY 15) – Remove and discard or destroy entire infested plant along with immediately surrounding soil and soil clinging to roots.
White mold – Avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so aboveground plant parts will dry as quickly as possible. Avoid crowding plants. Space apart to allow air circulation. Eliminate weeds around plants and garden area to improve air circulation. Crop rotation is essential.
The bean mosaic diseases cause plants to turn a yellowish green and produce few or no pods. The leaves on infected plants are a mottled yellow and are usually irregularly shaped. The only satisfactory control for these diseases is to use mosaic-resistant bean varieties.
Bright yellow or brown spots on the leaves or water-soaked spots on the pods are signs of bacterial bean blight. Bacterial blight is best controlled by planting disease-free seed; avoiding contact with wet bean plants; and removing all bean debris from the garden.
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